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Pachomius, Saint - Hermit who founded a cenobitical community, d. 346. Some speculation on how and why St. Pachomius came up with the idea of the cenobitical life Pacioli, Lucas - Tuscan mathematician (d. c. 1509) Padua - Diocese in northern Italy Paganism - Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, Judaism, and Islam Painting, Religious - Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. . . Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da - The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time (1514-1594) Pall - A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque at other services for the dead. Pall, Funeral - A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased person Pallium - A circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, and having two hanging pendants Palm in Christian Symbolism - A Christian symbol of victory Palm Sunday - The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May Pange Lingua Gloriosi - Article on the two hymns of this name. The second is by Thomas Aquinas. The first is 'generally credited' to Venantius Fortunatus, though some believe it is the work of Claudianus Mamertus Panpsychism - A philosophical theory which holds that everything in the universe, inorganic and organic, has some degree of consciousness Pantheism - The false theory according to which God and the world are one Papacy, The - The ecclesiastical system in which the pope governs the Catholic Church as its supreme head; also, the papal influence viewed as a political force in history. Pápago Indians - An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock Papal Elections - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . . Papal Mint - History of the coins Papal States - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler Papias, Saint - Thorough essay on what is known of this bishop, called by St. Irenaeus 'a hearer of John.' Also an exposition of the writings of Papias, who died around 120 Parables - A comparison, or a parallel, by which one thing is used to illustrate another. Paracelsus, Theophrastus - Extensive biographical entry on the physician and alchemist Paraclete - Another name for the Holy Ghost. Paradise, Terrestrial - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Paralipomenon, Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity. Parallelism - The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry. Paray-le-Monial - A town in France Paré, Ambroise - French surgeon (1517-1590) Parents - Considers the duties of parents toward their children, and vice versa Paris - Archdiocese and city in France Paris, University of - Famous and ancient university in France Parish - A portion of a diocese under the authority of a priest legitimately appointed to secure the helps of religion for the faithful dwelling therein Particular Judgment - The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God Pascal, Blaise - French scientist and philosopher (1623-1662) Pascal Baylon, Saint - Aragonese Franciscan lay brother, d. 1592 Pasch - Great Jewish holiday Paschal I, Pope - Pope who reigned from 817 to 824 Paschal II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1099-1118 Paschal III (Antipope) - Second antipope in the time of Pope Alexander III (d. 1168) Paschal Candle - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday Paschal Lamb - A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration Passionists - Full title: 'The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ'. Passion of Jesus Christ - Devotion to the sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated in His death upon the Cross Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels - Four separate accounts of the Passion of Our Lord, each of which supplements the others Passion Plays - The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle Ages, themselves an outcome of the liturgy of the Church. . . Passions - Motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend towards the attainment of some real or apparent good, or the avoidance of some evil. Passover - Great Jewish holiday Pasteur, Louis - Founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics (1822-1895) Pastor - A priest who has the cure of souls, that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the faithful by preaching, administering the sacraments, and exercising certain powers of external government Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus) - Disciples of St. Paul Pastoral Staff - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions Pastoral Theology - The science of the care of souls Paten - A small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon which the element of bread is offered to God at the Offertory of the Mass, and upon which the consecrated Host is again placed after the Fraction. Pater Noster - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster Patmore, Coventry - One of the major poets of the nineteenth century Patmos - A small volcanic island in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor Patriarch - The word 'patriarch' as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version . . . Patriarch and Patriarchate - Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule. Patrick, Saint - Lengthy biographical article on the Apostle of Ireland Patrick's Purgatory, Saint - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . . Patrology - The study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church Patron Saints - Statistics on popular titular patrons of churches in Rome, Belgium, and English-speaking countries. Short lists of some national patrons and patron saints of professional occupations Paul, Saint - The great Apostle to the Gentiles Paul I, Pope - Biographical article on this eighth-century pontiff Paul II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1464 to 1471 Paul III, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1534 to 1549 Paul IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1555 to 1559 Paul V, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1605 to 1621 Paul and John, Saints - Roman martyrs, c. 362 Paulicians - Dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism. Paul of the Cross, Saint - Biographical essay on the Italian-born founder of the Passionists. He died in 1775 Paul the Hermit, Saint - Fled into the Egyptian desert to escape the Decian persecution. Died at the age of 113 Paul the Simple, Saint - Monk, disciple of St. Antony, d. around 339 Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established Paula, Saint - Widowed at the age of 32, Paula embarked on the monastic life in Bethlehem, along with her daughter Eustochium. Paula died in 404 Paulinus, Saint - Looked upon as a saint even in his own lifetime. He died in 431 Pax in the Liturgy - A liturgical salutation ('Peace be with you') Peace of the Church - The condition of the Church after the publication at Milan in 313 by Emperor Constantine of an edict of toleration Peasants, War of the (1524-25) - A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany Pectoral - The breastplate worn by the high priest in the Old Testament Pectorale - The cross worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops and other prelates Pelagius I, Pope - Pope (d. 561) Pelagius II, Pope - Pope who succeeded Benedict I, when the Lombards were besieging Rome (d. 590) Pelagius and Pelagianism - Fifth-century heresy which denied original sin as well as Christian grace. Penal Laws - Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries since the Reformation. Penance (as a Virtue) - Penance designates (1) a virtue; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a canonical punishment inflicted according to the earlier discipline of the Church; (4) a work of satisfaction enjoined upon the recipient of the sacrament. Penance, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same. Penitentes, Los Hermanos - A society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Pennsylvania - One of the thirteen original United States of America Pentapolis - The region where stood the five cities of Sodom, Gomorrha, Zoar, Adama and Seboim Pentateuch - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament. Pentecost - A feast which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ Pentecost (Jewish Feast) - The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts. Pepin the Short - King of the Franks (714-768) Peppergrass, Paul - Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of 'Paul Peppergrass' (1810-1864) Perfection, Christian and Religious - A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end Perjury - The crime and sin of taking a false oath Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints - Martyred at Carthage in 203 Perpetual Adoration - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament Perpetual Help, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold Perrault, Charles - French writer (1628-1703) Persecution - The unlawful coercion of another's liberty or his unlawful punishment Perseverance, Final - The preservation of the state of grace till the end of life Persia - The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media. Persian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar who have separated from them Person - Discusses (1) the definition of 'person', especially with reference to the doctrine of the Incarnation; and (2) the use of the word 'persona' and its Greek equivalents in connection with the Trinitarian disputes. Personality - It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of personality in accordance with the scholastic theory; (2) of concepts of personality that conflict with the theory; (3) of abnormalities of consciousness with reference to their bearing on theories of personality. Peru - A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, having been a Spanish colony. Perugia - Archdiocese and city in Umbria, central Italy Pesch, Tilman - Jesuit philosopher (1836-1899) Pessimism - Term applied in popular language to persons who habitually take a melancholy view of life; or in philosophy, to a system that attempts to account for the presence of evil in the world. Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism - One of the greatest pioneers of modern education (1746-1827) Peter, Basilica of Saint - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay Peter, Chair of - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City Peter, Saint - Long article on his life Peter, Saint, Epistles of - Considers the authenticity, recipients, occasion, object, and date and place of composition of these two epistles Peter, Tomb of Saint - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter Peter Canisius, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597 Peter Chrysologus, Saint - Bishop of Ravenna, d. 450. Pious, zealous, and a renowned speaker--thus the name 'Chrysologus' Peter Claver, Saint - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654 Peter Damian, Saint - Cardinal, Doctor of the Church. Died in 1072. Biographical article Peter Lombard - Biobibliographical essay on the Master of the Sentences Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841 Peter of Alcántara, Saint - Spanish Franciscan priest, reformer, and mystic. Died in 1562 Peterspence - The name traditionally given to an annual contribution or tribute (originally of a penny from each landowner) paid to the Holy See by various peoples of Christendom. Peter the Hermit - Article on a man wrongly named by later writers as the instigator of the Crusades. In later life, Peter founded an abbey. He died in 1115 Petrarch, Francesco - Italian poet and humanist (1304-1374) Pharao - The title given in Sacred Scripture to the ancient kings of Egypt Pharisees - A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into existence as a class about the third century B.C. . . . Phenomenalism - Philosophical theories that assert that there is no knowledge other than that of phenomena Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) - Archdiocese in Pennsylvania, United States Philemon - A citizen of Colossae, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the New Testament, which bears his name. Philip the Apostle, Saint - Brief article on this New Testament figure in Scripture and Christian tradition Philip II (Augustus) - King of France (1165-1223) Philip II - King of Spain (1527-1598) Philip IV - King of France (1268-1314) Philip Romolo Neri, Saint - Biographical article on the Apostle of Rome, who died in 1595 Philippi - Macedonian town on the borders of Thracia Philippians, Epistle to the - Epistle written by St. Paul to the Christians of Philippi Philippine Islands - An island nation in the Pacific Ocean Philistines - Inhabitants of the maritime plain of Palestine from the time of Judges onward Philo Judæus - Article on his life, writings and doctrine, by Emile Brehier Philomena, Saint - An article on St. Philomena, whose relics were discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century Philosophy - Detailed article on the history of the 'love of wisdom' Phœnicia - A narrow strip of land, about 30 x 150 miles, shut in between the Mediterranean on the west and the high range of Lebanon on the east Photinus - Heretic, Galatian, deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra (d. 376) Photius of Constantinople - Chief author of the great schism between East and West (b. c. 815) Phylacteries - Small square cases of leather, worn on the forehead and forearm, used for devotional purposes Physics, History of - An article on the history and theories of physics Physiologus - An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous and giving each an allegorical interpretation. Picture Bibles - In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching Pietism - Seventeenth-century Protestant reform movement Pilar, Nuestra Señora del - 'Our Lady of the Pillar', a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a miraculous image of the Blessed Virgin Pilate, Pontius - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord Pileolus - The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic Pilgrimage of Grace - A religious rising in the north of England in 1536. Pilgrimages - Journeys made to some place with the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious obligation. Pillar of Cloud/Fire - A luminous cloud that accompanied the Israelites during their wandering Pima Indians - An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and the Salt River. Pisa, Council of - council held in the fifteenth century to settle the question of the Great Western Schism Piscataway Indians - The first Indian tribe whose Christianization was attempted under English auspices Pistoia, Synod of - Held in 1786 by Scipio de' Ricci in an effort to advance Jansenism Pittsburgh - Diocese in western Pennsylvania in the United States of America Pius I, Pope Saint - He excommunicated Marcion, and died in about 154 Pius II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1458 to 1464 Pius III, Pope - Pope who reigned for four weeks in 1503 Pius IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1559 to 1565 Pius V, Pope Saint - Biography of the sixteenth-century pontiff Pius VI, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1775 to 1799 Pius VII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1800 to 1823 Pius VIII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1829 to 1830 Pius IX, Pope - Biography of this pope, who died in 1878 Pius X, Pope Saint - Long article on the pontiff Pizarro, Francisco - Concise biographical article on the explorer Plagues of Egypt - Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharaoh's obstinacy and force him to let the Israelites to leave Egypt Plain Chant - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant Plants in the Bible - Discusses all of the types of plants mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures Plato and Platonism - Greek philosopher (b. c. 428 B.C.) Plenary Council - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods. Plunket, Blessed Oliver - Biographical article on the professor of theology, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, martyred in 1681 Pneumatomachi (Macedonians) - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament - No one can read attentively the poorest version of the Old Testament without feeling how strong a vein of poetry runs through its pages. . . Poitiers - Diocese and city in France Poland - Country in eastern Europe Polding, John Bede - Archbishop of Sydney (1794-1877) Pole, Blessed Margaret - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541 Pole, Reginald - English cardinal (1500-1558) Poles in the United States - Covers the causes and history of the Polish immigration Political Economy, Science of - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants Polo, Marco - Venetian traveller (1251-1324) Polycarp, Saint - Long article on what we can know about St. Polycarp, from ancient sources. Martyred in 155 Polyglot Bibles - The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcala, Spain, in 1502-17 . . . Polytheism - The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods. Ponce de León, Juan - Concise biographical article on the explorer Pontian, Pope Saint - He was exiled to the Sardinian mines in 235 and died there of privation Pontifical Decorations - The titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other marks of honour and distinction which the papal court confers upon men of unblemished character who have in any way promoted the interests of society, the Church, and the Holy See Pontifical Mass - The solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the 'Caeremoniale Episcoporum' Pontius Pilate - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord Poor, Care of, by the Church - The care of the poor is a branch of charity, which is the exercise of mercy toward one's fellowman rooted in the love of God Poor, Little Sisters of the - An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded 1839 in Brittany Poor Clares - The second order of St. Francis Pope, The - The bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter, chief of the whole Church, and the Vicar of Christ on earth Popes, Chronological Lists of the - The historical lists of popes, from those drawn up in the second century to those of the present day, form in themselves a considerable body of literature . . . Popes, Election of the - The pope becomes chief pastor because he is the Bishop of Rome; he does not become Bishop of Rome because he has been chosen to be head of the universal Church . . . Popes, List of - In chronological order. Links to a biographical essay on each. For popes up through Pope St. Pius X (d. 1914), entries are taken from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Information on later popes is taken from Joseph Brusher's 'Popes Through the Ages.' Pope, Alexander - English poet, son of Alexander Pope (1688-1744) Popular Devotions - Brief explanation of the spiritual practices collectively called 'devotions' or 'popular devotions.' Population, Theories of - Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between increase of population and increase of subsistence. . . Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture) - A hall projecting in front of the facade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West Porter - A minor order also called "doorkeeper" Portiuncula - A town and parish near Assisi, Italy Porto Rico - More properly spelled 'Puerto Rico'; the smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles Portraits of the Apostles - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . . Portugal - A country on the west side of the Iberian Peninsula Positivism - A system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte. Possession, Demonical - The control of a man's body though never his soul from within by evil spirits Postcommunion - The final prayers of thanksgiving and petition at the end of every Mass Postulant - A preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism. Poverty - Discusses poverty as a concept and canonical discipline Poverty and Pauperism - Persons whose existence is dependent for any considerable period upon charitable assistance, whether this assistance be public or private. Pragmatism - As a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical consequences as a test of truth. Pray Brethren - The exhortation addressed by the celebrant to the people before the Secrets in the Roman Mass Prayer - The raising of the heart and mind to God Prayer, Lord's - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster Prayer-Books - A collection of forms of prayer intended for private devotion, and in so far distinct from the 'service books' which contain the liturgical formularies used in public worship. Prayer of Quiet - A degree of contemplation in which the soul experiences an extraordinary peace and rest Prayers for the Dead - Catholic teaching regarding prayers for the dead is bound up inseparably with the doctrine of purgatory and the more general doctrine of the communion of the saints, which is an article of the Apostle's Creed Preachers, Order of - An extensive article about several branches of the Dominicans, including their history Preadamites - The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam. Precept - Precept, in its common acceptation, is opposed to 'counsel', inasmuch as the former imposes an obligation, while the latter is a persuasion Precious Blood - The blood of our Divine Saviour. Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most - An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats. Preconization - The ratification in a public consistory of the choice made by a third person of a particular benefice Predestinarianism - A heresy which reduces the eternal salvation of the elect as well as the eternal damnation of the reprobate to one cause alone, namely to the sovereign will of God, and thereby excludes the free co-operation of man as a secondary factor in bringing about a happy or unhappy future in the life to come. Predestination - Those divine decrees which have reference to the supernatural end of rational beings, especially of man Preface - The first part of the Eucharistic prayers in all rites Prelate - The holder of a prelature Premonstratensian Canons - Religious order founded in 1120 by St. Norbert Presbyterianism - One of the groups of ecclesiastical bodies that represent the features of Protestantism emphasized by Calvin. Presbytery - The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy Presence, Real - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy Presence of God - It is of faith that God is present by His essence everywhere and in all things by reason of His 'immensity' . . . Presentation, Feast of the - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple Presentation, Order of the - An order founded at Cork, Ireland Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the - According to some apocryphal writings, Mary, at the age of three, was brought by her parents to the Temple, in fulfillment of a vow, there to be educated Prester John - Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king. Presumption - A product of pride, and a vice opposed to the theological virtue of hope Presumption - A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn from arguments and appearances, which by the force of circumstances can be accepted as a proof Pretorium - The building Pilate occupied at the time of Christ's Passion Pride - The excessive love of one's own excellence. Priest - The minister of Divine worship and sacrifice Priest, Assistant - The first and highest in dignity of the ministers who assist the bishop in pontifical functions. Priest, High - The chief priest in the Old Testament Priesthood - Brief yet thorough examination of this sacrament Primacy - The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as pastor and governor of the Universal Church Primate - A bishop possessing superior authority, not only over the bishops of his own province, but over several provinces and metropolitans Prime - Article on the office of Prime, now suppressed Prior - A monastic superior. Prioress - A superioress in a monastic community for women Priory - A monastery whose superior is a prior. Prisca, Saint - Roman martyr of unknown date Priscilla and Aquila - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth Priscillianism - A heresy that originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis. Prisons - Discusses the history of prisons, as well as the influence of Christianity in their development and modern reform Privilege - A permanent concession made by a legislator outside of the common law Probabilism - The moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of an action, it is permissible to follow a solidly probable opinion in favour of liberty even though the opposing view is more probable. Processional Cross - A crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and which is usually mounted upon a long staff or handle Processions - Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every form of religious worship. . . . Procopius of Caesarea - Biographical article providing an overview of the historian's life and major writings Procurator - A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him. Profession, Religious - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced Promise, Divine - Embraces promises made by man to his fellowman, by man to God, and by God to man Promulgation - The act by which the legislative power makes legislative enactments known to the authorities entrusted with their execution and to the subjects bound to observe them Proof - The establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of - The department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries. Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the - An international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of Catholic missionary priests, brothers, and nuns engaged in preaching the Gospel in non-Catholic countries. Property - The person who enjoys the full right to dispose of it insofar as is not forbidden by law Property, Ecclesiastical - That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal goods is a proposition which may now probably be considered an established principle. But though almost self-evident and universally acted upon in practice, this truth has met with many contradictors. . . Prophecy - Says that in the strict sense, prophecy is the revelation of future events, but points out that in Scripture, prophecy may also be related to the gift of knowledge and sometimes is used to refer to divine inspiration concerning any secret Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess - Discusses prophecy and prophets in the Old and New Testaments Proselyte - As used in the New Testament, a convert to Judaism Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro - Christian writer and disciple of St. Augustine (c. 390-465) Protasius and Gervasius, Saints - Martyred in Milan, probably in the second century Protestant Episcopal Church - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism Protestantism - Discussion of Protestant beliefs and doctrines Proverbs, Book of - One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament Providence, Divine - Providence is God Himself considered in that act by which in His wisdom He so orders all events within the universe that the end for which it was created may be realized. Province, Ecclesiastical - An ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an archbishop. Provost - An official in a chapter Prudence - One of the four cardinal virtues Prussia - The Kingdom of Prussia covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 per cent of the area of the German Empire. Psalms - The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the 'Writings', i.e. of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today. Psalterium - The Book of the Psalms only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed and used for liturgical purposes. . . Psychology - The science which treats of the soul and its operations Psychotherapy - That branch of therapeutics which uses the mind to influence the body Public Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members Publican - A member or employee of the Roman financial companies who collected the taxes. Pueblo Indians - Indians of central New Mexico and northeastern Arizona Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore - Life and work of the architect Pulaski, Casimir - Polish-American patriot and soldier (1748-1779) Pulpit - An elevated stand to preach on Punishment, Capital - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime. Purgative Way - Stages in the spiritual life Purgatory - A place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions. Purgatory, St. Patrick's - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . . Purim - Jewish feast that commemorates the deliverance of the Jews from Haman Puritans - In its original meaning it signified those who strove for a worship purified from all taint of Catholicism . . . Pusey and Puseyism - Anglican divine, patristic scholar, voluminous writer, preacher and controversialist (1800-1882) Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism - Concise summary of doctrines attributed to Pythagoras Pyx - Small vessel in which the Holy Eucharist is carried to the sick.